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Thursday, September 11, 2008

2級 Grammar 111-115

Hey guys! It's Jeff! And I'm doing grammar again!

I know, I know, you're all saying "Jeff? On Grammar? Not likely!" And deservedly so. Recently I've been leaving the studying Japanese aspect up to Brett, and involving myself more in the "Having Japanese people buy you stuff" elements of what we do here...

But today, I do have some limited internet access back, and to prove my grammar merits, I'm accepting a challenge. Because I've found myself in a situation where I can't upload photos to the site, I had to ask Brett to upload them for me. He uploaded five pictures, and I have to figure out a way to tie each grammar point to the pictures he chose. Please keep in mind that the sentences should be taken in CONTEXT of the photos. Thanks.

Wish me luck, and off we go: 111-115.

111) ~に加え(て)
~ on top of
~ in addition
~ not just... (but....)
~ plus
~ and

My book lists a number of examples that help clear this one up:

In addition to forest fires, highway construction is contributing to deforestation.
He won gold medals AND silver medals, so he's pretty happy.

Basically it's used in situations when you want to emphasize a second cause, effect, or factor. It only gets attached to nouns though.

Ex. 県大会に加えて、全国騎士大会にまで優勝したから彼は最近かなり自慢してるよ。ほかの選手なんて誰一人もいなかったのに何盛り上がってるのか分からないけどね。

112) ~にこたえて ・ ~にこたえる
~ in order to meet

You might be familiar with のため(に) as the way to say "for the sake of," as in 愛のため, or 家族のため. If you were to get more specific with these concepts though, and not say simply love or family, but "the demands of love" or the "expectations of family," you'd encounter the same linguistic change in English. You don't say "for the sake of the demands/expectations" you say "in order to meet..."

Ex. この旅の必要性に応えるために、食料品をいっぱい集め、天気がよく川の状況もよい日を待っていました。それでようやく川を渡渉することができそうです。

113) ~に際し(て)
~ on the occasion of

Another ceremonial expression, used just as you would use 「の時に」 or 「の場合に」, but when you're speaking formally, at the conduction of a ceremony or event where formality is required. The book's examples involve presidential visits, or graduations. How about this one?

Ex. 世界ひげ大会の開会に際して、こちらBrighton市では世界のさまざまのひげを展覧することにいたしました。

114) ~に先立って ・ ~に先立つ
~ before

This one is attached to nouns, and seems pretty simple. If there are any nuances as to WHY it should be used instead of の前に, I'd love to hear them!

Ex. 僕との例文が写真に合わせるチャレンジに先立って、ブレットは変な写真をたくさん調べました。こういうのなら、無理だよ。だから、ちゃんとした例文も、この下に書きます。

ちゃんとしたEx. アメリカの野球の試合に先立って、「ザ・スター・スペングルード/バーナー」は歌われます。

115) ~にしたがって
~ as

The definitions for this one all reference other grammar points we've studied/are studying, like とともに、or につれて. It's specifically used to describe something that two things that are changing due to some sort of causal relationship. The point is that A changes AS B changes.

Ex. 自分の勝手な思い込みかもわからないけど、世界のペンギンの数が減らすにしたがって、ぺんぎんの肉がもっと美味しくなっていると思わない?


blue said...

Ex. 県大会に加えて、全国騎士大会にまで優勝したから

Hmmm, this one, I am not sure.
I thought B of "Aに加えて、B" is supposed to be in the similar rank with A.
Or B can be icing on the cake type thing.
But 優勝 at 全国大会 is a much greater achievement than 優勝 at 県大会.

So I say

and my ex is

But again, I am not sure about this.
What is Ex on your textbook?

Ex. この旅の必要性に応えるために、食料品をいっぱい集め、天気がよく川の状況もよい日を待っていました。

Again, I am not sure about this. it seems to be grammaically Okay but, but, but
I thought A of "A にこたえるために Bをする" is usually the demands from a person or some groups of people.


I can be way off on this one.
What is Ex on your textbook?

Ex. 世界のペンギンの数が減らすにしたがって、


blue said...

A にこたえるために Bをする

A is not only a demand but also can be an expectation as well.