I know, I know, you're all saying "Jeff? On Grammar? Not likely!" And deservedly so. Recently I've been leaving the studying Japanese aspect up to Brett, and involving myself more in the "Having Japanese people buy you stuff" elements of what we do here...
But today, I do have some limited internet access back, and to prove my grammar merits, I'm accepting a challenge. Because I've found myself in a situation where I can't upload photos to the site, I had to ask Brett to upload them for me. He uploaded five pictures, and I have to figure out a way to tie each grammar point to the pictures he chose. Please keep in mind that the sentences should be taken in CONTEXT of the photos. Thanks.
Wish me luck, and off we go: 111-115.
~ on top of
~ in addition
~ not just... (but....)
My book lists a number of examples that help clear this one up:
In addition to forest fires, highway construction is contributing to deforestation.
He won gold medals AND silver medals, so he's pretty happy.
Basically it's used in situations when you want to emphasize a second cause, effect, or factor. It only gets attached to nouns though.
112) ～にこたえて ・ ～にこたえる
~ in order to meet
You might be familiar with のため（に） as the way to say "for the sake of," as in 愛のため, or 家族のため. If you were to get more specific with these concepts though, and not say simply love or family, but "the demands of love" or the "expectations of family," you'd encounter the same linguistic change in English. You don't say "for the sake of the demands/expectations" you say "in order to meet..."
~ on the occasion of
Another ceremonial expression, used just as you would use 「の時に」 or 「の場合に」, but when you're speaking formally, at the conduction of a ceremony or event where formality is required. The book's examples involve presidential visits, or graduations. How about this one?
114) ～に先立って ・ ～に先立つ
This one is attached to nouns, and seems pretty simple. If there are any nuances as to WHY it should be used instead of の前に, I'd love to hear them!
The definitions for this one all reference other grammar points we've studied/are studying, like とともに、or につれて. It's specifically used to describe something that two things that are changing due to some sort of causal relationship. The point is that A changes AS B changes.