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Tuesday, September 9, 2008

2級 Grammar 106-110

Before I go on, I'd like to make a little note that the rest of this week should be daily postings. Some of these are already primed and ready to go, while others are still in the "man, I gotta get that yoji written..." phase. Will we make it through? Vote in the comments for your own personal validation!

Recently I've been searching around for a post-JET job, and it's had mixed results. I know there are some opportunities out there, but for a lot of them I lack experience. Then there's the whole issue of job hunting almost a year before your current contract is up. It's hard to take it seriously when I don't want to leave my current contract so early, but at the same time I don't want to just sit around doing nothing. That's part of what the yoji is, really - letting me at least sharpen my Japanese while I have a secure job. Anyway, all that job-huntin` stuff will be the topic of these sentences. I promise something more entertaining for Thursday!

106) ~にかけては ・ ~にけけても
on the point of ~,
when it comes to~,

Piling higher still on the mountain of grammar that reminds you powerfully of other grammar, this one is - again - pretty self-explanatory. The two handy points that will help you differentiate this one are as follows: 1. It can only be used at something you excel at, and 2. it always follows a noun. The second point, now that I think about it, is apparent given my examples. One couldn't say "when it comes to run, I'm the fastest!". Still, those grammatical points don't always transfer, so I'll go ahead and clarify.

Ex. レジュメの内容に関してどう書けばいいかわからない。「ゲームすることにかけては俺が誰にも負けないから、ゲームを作ること多分同じだ!」と書いたら会見者が笑って、「冗談でしょう!出て行け!」と返事する。

107) ~にかわって ・ ~にかわり
In place of ~,
Instead of ~,
On behalf of ~, (for people)
In lieu of ~,

I've actually known a close version of this phrase before, but I've always used "の代わりに", which is great to know if you don't already. Xの代わりにY, "Instead of X, Y". How is this grammar point different than my old fall-back? After a lot of research, I have some decent answers. First of all, these phrases are most commonly used to replace people in the sense of "on behalf of so-and-so, I'd like to present this award!". BUT, it can be used with inanimate objects, too, in the event that it's not a one-time replacement, but a general transition. "DVDs are being used in place of VHS these days," might be a good example.

Ex. ある仕事の場合で経験のかわって熱情と才能が足ります。その仕事探すぞ!
NOTE: This sentence has been found wanting by Japanese peers! Check out the comments for in-depth clarification from one of our regulars, blue!

108) ~に関して ・ ~に関する
Concerning ~,
About ~,
Regarding ~,

Another one I feel like I've known for a long time. Just as the other two examples above show, it's like ~について, though perhaps a little more formal. Use after a noun, and if you use に関する, use another noun after it, too.
Ex. 求職に関しては、早く探すことがとても大切です。給料をまだもらっているの間に、新しい仕事を得るほうがいいから。

109) ~に決まっている
It goes without saying that ~
It's quite certain that ~

This one you could probably figure out even without the hint. If something is "already decided", there's no room for debate, as is the case of this grammar point. Use this when there is very little room for doubt. Since it can basically be tagged onto any parts-of-speech without modification, it's also ridiculously simple to use. BEHOLD.

Ex. JETプログラムの契約の更新限界は五年ですけど、僕は三年間続けると決めた。ということは、あと1年で終わりなので、求職をしなければならないに決まっている。

110) ~に比べ(て)
Compared to ~,
In contrast to ~,

I was surprised to find this one in the grammar book, especially since the definition and synonyms were completely blank. Why? Because the word IS the grammar point. "比べる", or "くらべる", means simply to compare. Furthermore, since it can only be used with nouns, it's not especially complicated.

Ex. 日本に来るのは運命だった。JET除いて別の仕事に応募しなかった。前の仕事を探すこと比べて今はまた話が別です。


blue said...

Ex. ある仕事の場合で経験のかわって熱情と才能が足ります。その仕事探すぞ!
I say

These are usually used after a person or a group of people.
You are right, these are used for the occasions that you are required more respectful attitude.
Also you can say ~にかわりまして which is even more polite.

>the replacement must be of equal or greater worth than what it's replacing.

Not always so.
But if that occasion is very serious and someone has to apologize, someone who is greater in the hierarchy do so.
For example,
If you got involved in a traffic accident and someone, possibly a student of your school got killed or seriously injured and you were in coma.
Your 校長先生 or 教頭先生 will apologize to the family of the victim in place of you.

Ex. 求職に関して早く探すことなんて大切です。給料をまだもらっているの間新しい仕事を得るほうがいいだから。
I say

For this case, you need は.
For some other case you do not need は or you can go either of the ways.
I suggest you always use は with ~に関して. That would be safer for you.
But then sometimes you use that with の.

Ex. 求職をしなければならないに決まっている。

This sentence is grammatically correct.
But it does not go very well with the sentence before this.
And I suggest to use ということは in between. 


But still the entire flow is not very natural.
I thought about it for a long and hard.
As the result of the first sentence, you assume or (more like)are sure you should do something, which is the second sentence.
And usally what happend in the first sentence is not something you did voluntarily.

Hmmmm,NO actually the first sentence can be something you did.
So What is exactly wrong with your line?
Finally I realized that you had not mentioned how long time was left until your contract would be up, so readers can not tell how critical the situation is.
~に決まっている is very strong expression, so you have to explain the situation.
So this is the best way to say


This one needs a very good explanation as well but I will do that later.

Wow, I thought you were doing a easy grammer but ホント、結構難しいねー。
I hope you got a good teacher.
If I were you, I would MosDef demand a good logical explanation instead of just "We just don't say that" or "That just doesn't sound natural as Japanese".


Nirav said...

No time to comment on the 2級 grammar right now, but I'm going to bet that all of the rest of the postings for this week are on time.

Who wants to take that bet?

Defendership said...

As usual, blue, thanks for the advice. One question I still have with "にかわり" is that one of the example sentences my book gave didn't involve people. It goes like this :


That doesn't really seem to be especially formal and it doesn't involve any people, otherwise understanding this grammar point would be a lot easier. I'll make some of the other edits, though, but not now since I'm in the middle of 小学校.

Heh... I wish I could say I had a good teacher, but honestly, like Jeff, this is all self-study with books, the people around me, and some friends online, of which you are one. That's the problem with a lot of these finer grammatical points: getting a truly detailed, clear explanation is pretty hard to do.

Nirav: I would make a bet myself if my grammar points come this Thursday were not vital to the gambling. Though if you were willing to bet 僕の代わりに....

blue said...

Sorry, I was wrong.
I forgot about this usage.


Okay, let me explain.

ex. 1) VHSのかわりに、DVDが普通になりました。

ex. 2) VHSにかわり、DVDが普通になりました。

ex. 1) VHSのかわりに means "in place of VHS"

ex. 2) VHSにかわり means "something took over VHS" and in this case, it was DVD.

It is very subtle difference.
I do not remember any of my teachers from my childhood taught me this much of details.
Then how did I learn?
Probably from lots of reading and writing.
Just like you learned English.

ex. 1) その仕事は難しいけれど、僕はやる。

ex. 2) その仕事は難しいけれど、僕がやる。

The difference is 僕は or 僕が.

ex. 1) Though this job seems to be tough to finish, I will do it.

ex. 2) Though this job seems to be tough to finish, I will do it (whoever else will try to do it or not).

As for ex. 1)
This person thinks about only himself. others doe not matter.
As for ex. 2)
This person may know other pople are trying or will try the same work.
It is subliminal.

I highly doubt if any average young Japanese teachers can give these details or not.
I myself had never thought about it until I read what you wrote and tried to explain one.
I feel like I also have learned a lot now.

I admire your motivation to learn.