Two weeks in a row on grammar, I've picked back up on all my kanji studies, and I've got four other posts for this site coming. I'm back on my Japanese study game and all thanks to how incredibly unemployed I am. Man it was nice being in Japan, oblivious to how screwed up the American economical and political landscape has become. Let me do my best to tell you about in Japanese...
~ nothing short of
~ is guaranteed
Use this to make extremely strong statements of equation: War means death. Think of the ほかならない in terms of what it means conceptually: it won't be(come) anything else.
137) ～に基づいて ・ に基づく
~ to be grounded in
~to be rooted in
~to be based on
This is a pretty easy one. 基づく means "to be based on; to originate from." You could use this to say that hiragana and katakana are derived from kanji, or that all computer software is based on binary code. Or how about this one?
138) ～によって ・ により
~ according to
~ by means of
~ due to
によって or により is used to identify the cause or the means of something. My book's examples use によって to say "supported by volunteers," and により to say "due to the blackout."
~ depending on
I'm not entirely clear on this one, so I could use a little help, but I think that によっては is used to say, "in this situation, X is the case." I chose to define it as "depending on" because my book's examples lend themselves to that interpretation. Like 「たいてい遅く帰宅しますが、日によっては６時ごろ帰れる場合もあります。」 I read that as, "Usually I head home late, but depending on the day, I can also leave around six." Maybe "...on some days, I can leave around six," would be a better reading. Let's see if I can use it accurately, despite a spotty understanding, and see if Nirav, Clay, or Blue might be able to help iron out the wrinkles.
Ex. 私は 経済のことを心配しているけど、人によってはビジネスは前よりうまく行っているみたい。
~ because of
~ due to
~ is the cause of
Not looking a whole lot different from 138, huh? This is another case where the main difference is in how this phrase can be fiddled with grammatically, and how it finds its way into sentences. It's pretty much the same difference between 132 and 133, wherein this grammar point actually changes the focus of the sentence. The word preceding による acts as something of a modifier, whereas the actual subject is now the noun that follows it. And yes : it can only be followed up by a noun (or noun phrase).