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Thursday, October 2, 2008

2級 Grammar 136-140

Two weeks in a row on grammar, I've picked back up on all my kanji studies, and I've got four other posts for this site coming. I'm back on my Japanese study game and all thanks to how incredibly unemployed I am. Man it was nice being in Japan, oblivious to how screwed up the American economical and political landscape has become. Let me do my best to tell you about in Japanese...

136) ~にほかならない
~ nothing short of
~ is guaranteed

Use this to make extremely strong statements of equation: War means death. Think of the ほかならない in terms of what it means conceptually: it won't be(come) anything else.

Ex. Palin副大統領の地位は、ファースにほかならない。 



137) ~に基づいて ・ に基づく
~ to be grounded in
~to be rooted in
~to be based on

This is a pretty easy one. 基づく means "to be based on; to originate from." You could use this to say that hiragana and katakana are derived from kanji, or that all computer software is based on binary code. Or how about this one?

Ex. 今の不景気はサブプライムローン危機に基づいている。

138) ~によって ・ により
~ according to
~ by means of
~ due to

によって or により is used to identify the cause or the means of something. My book's examples use によって to say "supported by volunteers," and により to say "due to the blackout."

Ex. 不景気により、ずっと探しても仕事はまだできない。

139) ~によっては
~ depending on

I'm not entirely clear on this one, so I could use a little help, but I think that によっては is used to say, "in this situation, X is the case." I chose to define it as "depending on" because my book's examples lend themselves to that interpretation. Like 「たいてい遅く帰宅しますが、日によっては6時ごろ帰れる場合もあります。」 I read that as, "Usually I head home late, but depending on the day, I can also leave around six." Maybe "...on some days, I can leave around six," would be a better reading. Let's see if I can use it accurately, despite a spotty understanding, and see if Nirav, Clay, or Blue might be able to help iron out the wrinkles.

Ex. 私は 経済のことを心配しているけど、人によってはビジネスは前よりうまく行っているみたい。



140) ~による
~ because of
~ due to
~ is the cause of

Not looking a whole lot different from 138, huh? This is another case where the main difference is in how this phrase can be fiddled with grammatically, and how it finds its way into sentences. It's pretty much the same difference between 132 and 133, wherein this grammar point actually changes the focus of the sentence. The word preceding による acts as something of a modifier, whereas the actual subject is now the noun that follows it. And yes : it can only be followed up by a noun (or noun phrase).

Ex. 外国に住んでいるアメリカ人は、経済による不安を完全に理解できないと思う。

3 comments:

blue said...

Ex. 外国に住んでいるアメリカ人は経済により不安を完全に理解できないと思う。

外国に住んでいるアメリカ人は、経済による不安を完全に理解できないと思う。

Other than that, pretty goooood!

Defendership said...

haha, damnit... Secret confession - I actually came in and wrote that last sentence for Jeff as a pinch hitter as he barely ran out of time while writing the grammar points. The sad part is that the mistake was mostly just a typo...but it had to be a typo on the grammatical point around which the sentence revolved -_- thanks, Blue!

AzzidisRidden said...

you mean I did well for once?

That feels awesome.