We're doing our best to prepare for, and hopefully, to help you prepare for the 日本語能力試験１級, but please remember: 1級, by its very nature, consists of grammar that is difficult, highly nuanced, and most of the time, rarely used in regular conversations. That's why it's important that you use our posts as references, to be compared with other study sources, and even more important that you CHECK THE COMMENTS after each post. We're lucky to receive corrections and clarifications from native speakers and other foreigners more knowledgeable than we, and they don't always make it back into the body of the post. Thanks, and 頑張って！
1級 Grammar 26-30
Why I am still doing grammar is a mystery after the colorful confessions Jeff made last week. I suppose it's only fair, though, after I pretty much threatened his life. But, at long as we're airing Jeff's indiscretions at my apartment, I can fatten up the list a little...
Even ~ is of no use
When you want to express the hopelessness or futility of a situation, this one might come in handy. Just take care that you keep that "で" on the end, since ところ is one of those words that lends itself to a thousand definitions.
Every bit as tricky as the old grammar point I've linked above. Especially common are cases where だに is followed by a verb in negative form (changing the definition to "NOT even") or an adjective with a negative connotation. Where did all the happy grammar go?
Cases of "考えるだに", "想像するだに", and others where the mere thought of something is enough to get a response are also abundant.
(Not) even a single ~
I know "single" is not actually included in the definition above, but ALL the examples listed in our book are used with some unit measured with "1". "一円たりとも", "一瞬たりとも", "1分たりとも", etc. The explanation says cases like this are most frequent, and since a lot of the people (like us) probably don't have a perfect grasp on when to use it, employing one of something before "たりとも" is your safest bet.
For those that are ~,
Another expression that doesn't translate well into English, especially given how it usually a applies to a specific set of usages. First off, the phrase that comes before "たる" should be an occupation, organization, or group of some high renown. You wouldn't use it for criminals or your average joe. What you WOULD use it for is police officers, CEOs, or pro athletes. Then the book suggests that 者 is the most common word to come after たる, making the whole phrase something like "Those who would deign call themselves police officers," "警察官たる者." I would've made the translation above more directly related to this if not for the fact that book only says these are the 多い cases, or common ones. As with grammar point 28, I suggest sticking pretty strictly to these guidelines if you want to be understood. Also: it's used mostly in writing.
Remember all that?
To ~ and ~
both ~ and ~
Okay - yes, that definition sucks. But a ridiculous number of possibilites can fit into this grammar point. When you actually utilize it, you fill the "～" spaces with either opposite words ("coming and going", "sitting and standing") or a word and its passive tense, like "punch and be punched", or "teach and be taught". To make it work, take the ～ます stems of two words and plant some "つ"s on the end. Oila! Easier than it sounds!
Though also...harder. In trying to make my example sentence, I googled tons of possibilities that I thought would work out, and none of them showed up. Use with caution!!